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Rutland Historical Society Quarterly Fall 1976 VolumeJVNo. 4 

XL 



Rutland Historical Society 101 Center Street Rutland, Vermont 

The Society publishes the Quarterly for its members in the interests of 
preserving and studying the history of the Rutland community which comprises 
the towns of West Rutland, Proctor, Rutland and the City of Rutland. The 
Society maintains and operates a museum at 101 Center Street, Rutland, Ver- 
mont in the former Bank of Rutland building, owned by the City of Rutland. 



Membership in the Society is open to all upon payment of dues which are: 
Regular— $2.00; Contributing— $10.00; Life (one payment)— $75.00 Gifts of 
money or articles of historical interest are welcome at all times and are deduct- 
ible since the Society is a certified non-profit corporation. 

Officers and Directors 
President: A. J. Todd The Board of Directors: 

Vice President: A. C. Paca The officers and: 

Secretary: Jean Ross Eleanor D. Douglas 

Treasurer: G. J. Covalt F. P. Elwert 

Kenneth S. Fisher 

Monsignor John Lynch 

Louise McCoy 

Sanborn Partridge 

The Cover 

This is the east side of Merchants Row in the 1880's, looking northerly, 
showing the prominent Rutland landmark, the Bardwell House, as it appeared 
after a remodeling. Other identified buildings, left to right: the second Bates 
House, the Morse Block, and 3 store-fronts. Compare with a view looking south- 
erly along this block, taken seventy years later (56). 



Editor — F. P. Elwert; (Staff of this issue:) Robert E. West; maps and 
artwork — Donna Herring. Contributors: Lloyd G. Marsh; Kathlyn Hatch. 



Note: None of the dwellings in this guide is open to the public. 



All descriptions enclosed in quotation marks are from Kathlyn Hatch's His- 
toric Sites and Structures Survey of Rutland City and Historic Sites and Structures 
Survey of Rutland Town prepared for the Vermont Division for Historic Preser- 
vation. 

18 



Episcopal Church Rectory I 



This magnificent building graces 
West Street no longer. It is printed 
here as a poignant memorial to those 
monuments of the early days of Rut- 
land which have succumbed to the 
blind needs of progress — the Jenkins 
(or Ross) house, the State House, the 
Hulett house, the Whittier house, the 
General Ripley house. . . . One could 
not wish for a better example of the 
Greek Revival style than the former 
Episcopal Rectory. This building, in- 
spired by the sacred Greek temples, 
has been profaned. 




An Apology and an Historical Note 

This field guide to the architecture of the Rutland community is not a his- 
tory. It is acknowledged, however, that considerable history can be learned from 
visiting the homes, stores and factories described here. For example, it may not 
at first be apparent that the concentration of early 19th century homes near 
West and Main Streets in Rutland City, and near the falls in Center Rutland, 
indicates that the first urban life in the community was at these places. The 
predominance of Italianate and Mansard style homes in West Rutland tells 
us that growth and prosperity reached that area later in the 19th century. Huge 
mansions in the Mansard and Queen Anne styles throughout the area tell us 
how men, made wealthy after the Civil War, sought to impress their contem- 
poraries and their posterity by their ostentation. The people who made this 
community are gone- and most are forgotten- but many of their tangible works 
remain. A study of these relics of the past needs no apology. 

The earliest buildings of the pioneers do not survive. We glean from the 
scanty records left to us that the first buildings of the 1770's and 1780's were 
constructed of the only material available- hewn logs. As sawmills and brick- 
yards were established late in the 18th century substantial structures on per- 
manent foundations were built. Few of these prototypes survive; none do in an 
unaltered state. 

Thus our guide begins at the time of the admission of Vermont into the 
Union- about 1791. The homes built at that time were simple, unadorned build- 
ings of wood and were constructed by craftsmen who learned their trade down- 
country, using builder's handbooks. 



19 



A GUIDE TO THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE RUTLAND COMMUNITY 

This is intended as a field guide to the architecture of Rutland, Vermont, 
chartered in 1761 by Benning Wentworth, governor of the Province of New 
Hampshire. This town of some thirty-six square miles has since been partitioned 
into the four communities of West Rutland, Proctor, Rutland Town and the 
City of Rutland. 

This handbook is organized into six tours. Two of them, the Old Village 
and Downtown Rutland, should be done on foot because the buildings are close 
together. Furthermore, walking permits time to appreciate both the buildings 
and their neighborhood. The other four tours cover much of the rural and less- 
densely populated areas and lend themselves to a combination of bicycle or auto 
travel and walking. 

Each tour may be taken at any time and in no particular order. Inclusion 
in this guide does not mean that a building is among the major monuments of 
the area, nor does omission imply that a building is unimportant. Date of con- 
struction, name of architect, builder or first owner, where known, are given. 
The editor is responsible for errors and he would appreciate having mistakes 
called to his attention. 

Gratitude is expressed to all who made this over-size issue of the Quarterly 
possible. To Kathlyn Hatch, architectural historian, the Society is indebted for 
allowing us to use her technical descriptions which we quote directly from the 
Historic Sites and Structures Survey of Rutland City and the Historic Sites and 
Structures Survey of Rutland Town, both prepared by Ms Hatch for the Vermont 
Division for Historic Preservation. We are pleased that the Vermont Division 
for Historic Preservation not only caused these surveys to be made but that they 
made available to Society, at cost, a copy of each. The assistance of Robert E. 
West in planning the tours and in layout work is gratefully acknowledged. To 
architectural historian Lloyd Grosvenor Marsh especial thanks are due for 
advice and consultation, for guidance and inspiration and for making available 
photographs from his large collection. 




20 





17 73 South Main 



12 27 South Main 



The Federal Style 

This early mode was in vogue up to the late 1840's. It is based on the 
Georgian period house popular in England and the seaboard of New England in 
the 18th century. In the frontier of Vermont it was innocent of ornamenta- 
tion and its shape was rectangular with a hipped or gable roof. It was ideally 
suited to a pioneer community since it afforded a maximum volume of living 
space for the minimum area of surface. The entrance was centered and window 
arrangement was symmetrical. A survivor of this style in its early, simplest 
form, is exemplified by the Gershom Cheney house (17). As brickyards were 
established this style was expressed in brick as well as wood. When more skilled 
builders migrated into the area, details and embellishments were incorporated 
in the basic form. The Solomon Foot house (12) is graced by brick pilasters 
arcading over the w-indow openings. This touch not only added variety to a 
plain structure but it allowed the saving of one course of brick around the win- 
dows and permitted narrower casing for the windows. This arcade over the 
windows occurs in several houses of the period, numbers 1, 2, and 75. Newspaper 
accounts relate that the Daniels brothers built the Bank of Rutland in 1824, 
thus it may be inferred they probably were the builders of the other houses 
with arcaded brickwork. 

In congested areas, or in places where optimism expected there would be 
a solid block of buildings, the gable end faced the street and the gable frequently 
was parapeted (see 1), giving the building the appearance of being taller, sim- 
ilar to the false front structures in the Trans-Mississippi West. The entrance 
usually faced the street and the door would often be flanked with leaded, narrow 
windows (sidelights) and a glazed, fan-shaped transom shed further light into 
the hall. The Federal style was so simple and graceful it lent itself readily to 
further embellishments which came with the Greek Revival style. Examples 
of this style: 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 61, 63, 64, 65, 69, 70, 75, 
76, 77, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118. 




5 58 North Main 



86 Gilmore House 



The Greek Revival Style 

In its pure form this style is based on studies of the ancient Greek temples 
which, in the mid-18th century, had been excavated by European scholars. 
During the early days of the 19th century interest in the Greek war of inde- 
pendence against the Turks had aroused such a passion for this style of archi- 
tecture that builders' handbooks incorporated this mode into buildings for both 
private and public use. By the time the style had become popular in the remoter 
regions of New England other styles had achieved even greater popularity. The 
Greek Revival style enjoyed a short period of acceptance by a relatively small 
number of home owners in the period 1840 to 1860. The style is characterized 
by wide corner pilasters and fluted or relieved columns. The gable usually faces 
the street to show to best advantage either a porch with columns or an entrance 
with full entablature, that is, pilasters flanking the entrance, capped by a shal- 
low pediment. Gable ends were frequently fully pedimented- the return of 
the cornice was extended across the full width of the gable end to meet the return 
at the other end. The Episcopal Rectory (page 19) appears to have a pedimented 
gable but it does not. What one sees is the cornice of the porch. The roof is 
invariably pitched in accordance with the Greek rules of proportions. 

Examples of this style: Episcopal Rectory (page 19), 4, 5, 57, 71, 82, 86, 
92, 115, 116. 



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42 34 Cottage 



47 Universalist Church 



Qothic Revival 

This style began in England as a 
reaction to the formal, rigid classicism 
of the Greek Revival style. In America 
the proponent of this style was Andrew 
Jackson Downing who wrote exten- 
tensively on rural life, landscaping and 
the so-called "picturesque" or Cot- 
tage Gothic architecture. The style 
is easily recognized by its lancet win- 
dows, vertical board and batten siding, 
and a steeply pitched roof garnished 
with scrolled barge boards. In this 
area the style was not popular since, 
during its height most builders pre- 
ferred houses which were showy and 
not merely quaint. Local examples are 
confined to modest homes: 42, 66 (an 
exception, since this is a rather large 
home. It evidently was not showy 
enough for the owner in the 1880's; 
he added Queen Anne style embel- 
lishments), 73, 100, 104. In churches 
the idiom found favor in stone and is 
expressed in: 28, 30, 38, 89, 93, the 
last being wood-frame. 



Victorian Gothic 

If the Gothic Revival style found 
little favor in secular architecture, it 
found its home in the religious fold. 
Native marble was abundant during 
the post-Civil War days and this style, 
in imitation of the soaring steeples and 
spires of European cathedrals, was 
readily adopted by many church con- 
gregations, particularly Catholic. Vic- 
torian Gothic differs from the earlier 
Gothic Revival in that it uses color 
extensively, contrasting stone with 
brick or tile. 

Examples: 47, 72 and Immaculate 
Heart Church, 16 Nichols (not on tour). 




67 The Maples 



31 NlCKWACKETT FlRE HOUSE 



Italianate 

This style, like others of the latter part of the 19th century- the so-called 
Victorian period- is rooted in a revolt against the classical, the ordered and 
the symmetrical. It found its origin in the farm villas of northern Italy where 
the additions over the years produced an assymmetrical structure of varying 
levels, aspects and uses- in much the same manner that the typical Vermont 
farmstead with its ells, sheds and barns became a conglomeration of diverse 
elements. The style was promoted, in America, by A. J. Downing, the apostle 
of the "picturesque". The result was a massive structure of two or three stories, 
an assymmetrical disarray of windows of many shapes and at different levels. 
A feature incorporated in the local versions, not found in the Italian counter- 
part, was the bracketed eave which was to become the hallmark of the style 
and led to the coining of the phrase "Bracketed" style. The style found favor 
with those who sought a massive house which would set the owner apart as a 
man of means. When well-designed and integrated the style produced such 
pleasing buildings as those shown above. Later, as the style was watered down 
and adapted to wood frame houses it was used with some success in more modest 
homes. 

Examples: 19, 22 (an early, restrained type) 25, 31, 33, (badly mutilated 
with the loss of its cupola, top story and cornice), 34, (a fine commercial example), 
41, 44, 48, 67, 72 (rectory), 88 (a chaste prototype), 90, 94, 95. 





23 30 Washington 



20 17 Washington 



Mansard 

The French architects, Mansard, practiced almost two centuries before the 
roof design named after them became an element in American architecture. 
This style combines dormer windows set in a steeply-pitched roof, allowing light 
in the attic. Its basic, early form is exemplified by the Richardson house (20) 
whose concave roofline is accented with three simple dormers. Bracketed eaves 
are borrowed from the Italianate-style. The detailing on this house is subdued 
and classical, consisting of wooden quoins. A later version is the Abraham house 
(23) and its twin, the Curtis house (102), both with a two-story pavilion top- 
ped by a tower with a heavy corniced curb. Dormers are of all shapes, including 
round and oval. Corner pilasters are often used. The style was popular following 
the Civil War. Today virtually every surviving example proves to be too large 
for single-family occupancy and they have been converted into apartment 
houses or commercial use. It is a truism that every building survives as long 
as its owner can put it to an economic use. 

Examples: 10, 13, 20, 21, 23, 26, 45, 60 (Office), 72, 99, 101, 102. 




6 54 North Main 



79 Davis House 



Queen Anne 

This mode has nothing to do with the last of the Stuart line of English 
royalty who reigned during the Baroque phase of architecture begun in the 
Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Builders during the waning years of the 19th 
century evolved a free-form style that joined the Baroque concept to the ad- 
vanced technology in the lumber and masonary industries. There was virtually 
no form that could be designed that could not be mass-produced in wood or 
stone. The result was a style, that was irregular in plan and massing, with a 
variety of colors and textures. In the house at 54 North Main (6) note the 
rough-cut stone in the foundation, the narrow clapboards on the first level, the. 
wider ones in the second level, and the serrated ones in the third level. Windows 
range from large, single-paned, double-hung sash to leaded stained glass, fan- 
lights in the third level, and oval, keystoned windows on the front facade. Bay 
windows with overhanging square projections are common. 

Ornate chimneys of modeled or cut brick are usual. Also typical is a semi- 
oval bay with a pair of windows. In place of brackets supporting the eaves, 
ornamented rafter ends are exposed. 

Examples: 6, 9, 24, 66, 79, 106, 108, 121. 




43 96 Grove 



Richardsonian Romanesque 



The hallmark of the Romanesque 
style is the rounded arch. A special 
distinction is made in a derivative style 
made famous by H. H. Richardson, 
in which the rounded arch contrasts 
with a facade of a different color or 
texture. This contrast makes the arch 
even more prominent. 

With native marble, the contrast is 
between the rough-cut grey stone fa- 
cade and the finer cut, or polished, 
marble of the arch. In public build- 
ings, such as the Baxter Library (43) 
and the Union Church (81) the round 
arch is duplicated in smaller arched 
openings in the tower. The Roman- 
esque arch was commonly incorporated 
in the Queen Anne house and the Shin- 
gle style house. 

Examples: 9, 43, 81, 108 



Renaissance Revival 



This style drew heavily on the Ital- 
ian palazzo of the more monumental 
sort, rather than the Italian villa. It 
is classical, not picturesque. It is char- 
acterized by a smooth facade lightly 
accented with windows set in simple 
but dramatic frames. Pilasters are 
usually lacking. Cornices are full-scale 
and the roof is low pitched. Ammi 
Young, architect for the Federal Gov- 
ernment in the 1850's, designed many 
courthouses and postoffices; an exam- 
ple of his work in Rutland is the for- 
mer Federal Courthouse shown above 
(29). Another fine, newer example: 46. 



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109 201 Grove 



119 68 Ives 



The Shingle Style 

In this style, the entire house, in- 
cluding columns, is covered with shin- 
gles, relieved perhaps by a foundation 
of rough-cut stone. Windows are small- 
paned, and oval windows with four 
voussoirs, and eyebrow windows are 
common. Although the plan and mass 
follows the Queen Anne style, the gen- 
eral effect is not one of exuberance but, 
because of the sobering effect of the 
monotone shingles, one of dignity and 
repose. The overhang of the roofline 
is small, quite often being flush with 
the facade. 

Examples: 107, 109. Other notable 
examples are found in those neighbor- 
hoods developed in the 1920's. 



The Bungalow Style 

The term "bungalow" connotes a 
one-story vacation home of modest 
pretensions. Locally most bungalows 
are two-story houses. The example 
above at 68 Ives was built by Fred- 
erick Ives and is a fine example of the 
style in this area. Vertical boards and 
batten siding was used but shingle 
siding is more common. A rustic effect 
is achieved by the clustered rafter ends 
which protrude beyond the line of the 
eaves. 



A note about the term Vernacular, which is referred to from time-to-time. 
It is not a style at all, but a lack of style. By definition, it is native or peculiar 
to popular taste. Buildings termed vernacular can be assets to the neighbor- 
hood, or they can be banal or insipid imitations. Examples: 24, 35, 52, 53, 62, 
68, 98. 



28 



Tour of the Old Village of Rutland 
Map on pages 32 and 33 




64 North Main 



2 South Main 



Begin at the museum of the Rutland Historical Society, 101 Center Street 
(1) which ". . . still retains several original Federal style features: stepped parapets 
at the front and rear, recessed arcading in the side bays, a large fanlight in the 
upper part of the Center Street elevation. . . ." Built in 1824 for the Bank of 
Rutland by the Daniels brothers. 

(2) 43 North Main. c. 1830. ". . . a three-bay Federal style brick house with 
arcaded facade, gable lunette, and splayed window lintels . . ." 

(3) 49 North Main. c. 1800. Gov. C. Williams house. ". . . five-bay Geor- 
gian style wood frame house with . . . modillion cornices at the eaves and pedi- 
mented gables. Center bay has entrance and tryptych-style window above . . . 
Victorian porch ..." 

(4) 64 North Main, photo above. "... said to have been built by Jonathan 
Wells in 1812 for Robert Temple . . . typical five-bay, center hall plan. The end 
gables . . . are treated as pediments and in the center of the facade is a pedi- 
mented cross gable. Both the eaves and gable cornices are decorated with car- 
ved, H-shaped dentils . . . exceptionally fine Federal style detailing and a rela- 
tively unusual cross-gable design." 

(5) 58 North Main. 1848. John Boardman Page house, photo p. 22. ". . . U- 
plan, one-and-a-half-story Greek Revival style house with recessed porch sup- 
ported by two Doric columns. Clapboard facade and gable roof with two pedi- 
mented dormers over the porch. Five bays across with sidelights-and-transom 
entrance in the second bay . . ." 

(6) 54 North Main. c. 1890. photo p. 26. ". . . late Queen Anne style house 
with end gable . . . tightly composed, shingled second level projects beyond 
the ground floor wall line and includes a bow window, center recessed balcony, 
and a gabled polygonal bay . . ." 

(7) 44 North Main. 1797. Gov. Israel Smith house. ". . . Federal style . . . 
five-bay, center hall plan with fanlit entrance and center second-story window. 
Modillion cornice at eaves and gables. Colonial Revival period alterations . . ." 

(8) 2 South Main. c. 1800. photo above. Graham house. ". . . Federal style, 
three-story, wood frame building with hipped roof. Five-bay arcade with two 
oriel windows at each end . . . windows have diamond-shaped panes in upper 
sash . . ." 

29 




9 16 South Main 



11 26 South Main 



(9) 16 South Main. 1895. photo above. Chaffee house "The facade of this 
large late 19th century house has a rock-faced grey marble block ground level 
and shingles in the second and third story ... at the center of the front elevation 
is a large stone arch. The entrance ... is placed in a recess behind this arch and 
has moulded oak woodwork ... In the upper level of the (rounded) tower are 
small, multi-paned windows between short, thick columns . . ." 

(10) 24 South Main. c. 1869. Sycamore Inn. Mansard style. ". . . unusually 
large and ornate . , . handled successfully through the use of complex massing 
in the form of a series of setbacks . . . detailing is simple, classical and restrained 
. . . the tower . . . has an ogee-shaped cap with an oval window . . . ornate double 
doors, a Minton-tiled vestibule, and porch with paneled, boxed posts . . . the 
breaks in the facade are decorated with pilasters and continuous string courses 
appear at the floor levels ..." 

(11) 26 South Main. c. 1800. Rev. Samuel Williams house, photo above. 
"... five bays wide and one room deep, with a late rear shed that forms a salt- 
box roofline. The pilastered center entrance, now remodeled, and ground floor 
windows date from an alteration during the Greek Revival period." Said to have 
been built by Gershom Cheney. 

(12) 27 South Main. c. 1820. photo p. 21. Solomon Foot house. ". . . brick 
Federal style house with a three-bay arcaded facade. The relieving arches are 
elliptical and spring from brick pilasters. The front gable lunette has a center 
mullion and the door is surrounded by a leaded transom and sidelights. . . ." 

(13) 1 and 3 East Washington, c. 1870. "Small two-story brick Mansard 
style house with brick ell . . . brick segmental lintels at the ground level. . . ." 

(14) 2 East Washington, c. 1810. William Page house. "... moved to this 
site from 24 South Main . . . Neo-Georgian pedimented doorway . . .." 

(15) 44 South Main. c. 1830. ". . . double brick house in Federal style . . . 
20th century porch with Doric columns." 



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16 61 South Main 



19 2 Washington 



(16) 61 South Main. c. 1810. photo above. Moses Strong house. ". . . al- 
though the building has been substantially altered, the basic lines and some 
detailing remain of the original design. The Colonial Revival remodeling — based 
on Georgian style motifs — is of architectural merit in its own right." 

(17) 73 South Main. c. 1800-1820. photo p. 21. Federal style with hipped 
roof. "... the pedimented Georgian style surround, window trim and rear ell 
appear to be later alterations." 

(18) 76 South Main. c. 1810-1830. Wheelock or Huntoon tavern. ". . . the 
original core . . . extending across the first story of the facade to the depth of the 
first side bay, has jack arches over the window openings and a second level 
string course . . ." Third story is later. 

(19) 2 Washington, c. 1855. photo above. Huntoon house. ". . . bracketed 
Italianate house ... of L-shaped main block with an entrance tower at the 
intersection of the two wings . . . the entrance has patterned, leaded glass in the 
sidelights and transom, and a small front porch with fluted Corinthian columns 

(20) 17 Washington, c. 1870. photo p. 25. Mansard style. ". . . three bays 
wide, two rooms deep. Center porch with crosseted surround, leaded transom, 
and bracketed porch . . . wood quoins at corners. ..." 

(21) 23 Washington, c. 1860. Gov. P. Clement house. Mansard style. 
"On the front and side elevations are center gables with a Mansard profile and 
round-headed windows ... at the side elevations are centered bay windows. . . ." 

(22) 26 Washington, c. 1860. Cook house. ". . . Italian palazzo-style house 
has deep overhanging eaves with large paired brackets set into a wide brick 
fascia ... it was built by E. F. Cook, owner of the Bardwell House . . . the rear 
ell is said to be an earlier house on the site, owned by George W. Strong. . . ." 



31 



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27,28 



& 83 Center 



Congregational Church 



(23) 30 Washington, c. 1870. photo p. 25. Abraham house. Mansard style. 
". . . wood trim ... is intricately scrolled and incised, with many inventive, 
non-academic forms used. ..." 

(24) 30 Madison, c. 1890. ". . . This ornate late 19th century house is a 
fine vernacular example of American Queen Anne style . . . the wood trim, mostly 
derived from Eastlake motifs, is concentrated at the facde porch and bay. . . ." 



(25) 23 Court, c. 1869. 
style house with high roof . . 
rectilinear stone lintels. . . .' 



Newton Kellogg house. ". . . brick Italianate 
. paired facade windows with thick mullions and 



(26) 86 Center. 1861. Mansard style. ". . . the ground-level bays are 
treated with wood-faced arcading over brick pilasters. This motif is repeated 
in wood, with paneled posts and Gibbs-style voussoirs, on the center entrance 
porch. . . ." 

(27) 83 Center. 1869. (photo above.) County Courthouse. ". . . above the 
pediment is a clock tower, with a pilastered cupola of a style conservative for 
the building's date. . . ." 

(28) 81 Center. 1871. photo above. Baptist Church. Gothic Revival style. 
". . . a four-level tower with marble-capped pier buttresses and a hexangonal 
spire, balanced on the opposite side by a much smaller tower, without window 
openings. . . ." 

(29) Northeast corner Center and Court. Old Federal Courthouse. 1856. 
photo p. 27. Renaissance Revival style. ". . . designed by Ammi B. Young . . . 
a sophisticated example, for its date . . . the quoins and vermiculated surrounds 
of the lower story windows are cast iron. . . ." 

(30) 8 Court. 1860. photo above. Congregational Church. Gothic Revival 
style. ". . . the spire, with gablets and three unusual elliptical windows that 
decrease in size, rises from a wood base with slatted sides. There is a corbeled 
cornice at the oaves and pier buttresses with marble trim appear on the tower 
and facade corners. . . ." 



34 



Tour of Downtown Rutland 
Map on pages 32 and 33 




J. 4 .^ 



35 56 Center 



37 Longfellow School 



(31) Southeast corner Center and Nickwackett. c. 1870. Fire Station. 
-photo p. 24. ". . . Italianate style brick fire house with gable roof, bracketed 
eaves and stone trim . . . good, and unusually early example. . . ." 

(32) 92 Center, c. 1870. Rowell house. ". . . Jerkin-style roof in main block 
of facade with ogee gables on the side elevations. . . ." 

(33) 78 Center, c. 1860. Sheldon house. ". . . brick Italianate style house. 
Square palazzo format . . . hip roof, cupola, cornice and eyebrow windows re- 
moved. . . ." 

We now enter the commercial district developed in the 1850's with the 
advent of the railroad. 

(34) 60 Center, c. 1860. Verder Bakery. Italianate. ". . . brick commercial 
building . . . windows are trimmed with marble . . . most of original detailing 
intact . . . most notable feature is the brick corbeled cornice, which has a band 
of raised pointed arches. . . ." 

(35) 56-58 Center, c. 1890. photo above. "Commercial vernacular . . . with 
an L-Plan. . . the building has a pressed metal cornice and corner two-story 
oriel with conical cap. . . ." 

(36) 29 Wales, c. 1940. Herald Building. Effective use of slate in Art Deco 
style when building was converted from a garage. 

(37) Northeast corner Church and West. 1890. Longfellow School, photo 
above. A blend of Romanesque, Classical Revival and Queen Anne styles. To 
be remodeled into school offices. 

(38) Northwest corner Church and West. c. 1860. Trinity Church. Gothic 
Revival style with truncated entrance tower and four corner spires. 

(39) 80 West. 1975. Remodeled bank in the faddish style, New Brutalism, 
which is characterized by rough surfaces and massive panels. 



35 




40 112 West 



41 24 Cottage 



(40) 112 West. c. 1930. Grand Theatre, -photo above. Colonial Revival 
style with symmetrical facade and relieved arch, now covered. 

(41) 24, 26, 27 Cottage, c. 1860. photo above. Italianate brick houses with 
bracketed eaves and extensive use of marble. In this neighborhood were found 
the modest homes of skilled workers and foremen. 

(42) 34 Cottage, c. 1860. -photo p. 23. Gothic Revival style. 

(43) 96 Grove, c. 1889. Baxter Memorial Library, photo p. 27. Richard- 
sonian Romanesque style. "... a cruciform-plan building constructed of rock- 
faced grey marble laid in random coursing ... all windows in main block are set 
in arched openings and decorated with carved stonework. . . ." 

(44) 65, 68, 70 Grove, c. 1860. These Italianate brick houses are similar to 
other middle class dwellings in this area convenient to the commercial district. 

(45) 21 Merchants Row. c. 1870. Royce house. Mansard style. 'Elaborate 
interplay of roofline projections and polygonal bays ... as well as the exceptional 
quality of the entrance. ..." 

(46) 47 Merchants Row. c. 1924. Marble Savings Bank. "... a handsome 
and expensively detailed example of Renaissance Revival architecture. . . there 
is an interfloor level with small grilled windows and in the upper story, faced 
with ashlar, are round arched windows over polished green marble insets. . . ." 

(47) 117 West. c. 1888. Universalist Church, photo p. 23. Victorian Gothic 
Revival style. ". . . built of rock-faced grey marble ... an unusual feature is the 
front porch, which imitates in stone a form more characteristic of Late Victorian 
wood decoration. ..." 

(48) 51 Merchants Row. 1869. Landon Block. Italianate commercial 
style ". . . designed with a corbeled cornice and Italianate arched windows with 
projecting brick lintels. . . ." 

(49) 63-75 Merchants Row. c. 1870, remodelled c. 1950. Ripley Opera 
House and Ripley Bank Building. Two structures of the Renaissance Revival 
period recently covered with modern facades. The grillwork over the bank, 
in the New Formalism style, is handsome in its own right in contrast to the 
garishness of the enameled panels to the north. 




54 9-13 Center 



56 128 Merchants Row 



(50) 89 Merchants Row. c. 1880. Clement Bank. Romanesque style. 
". . . the bank's trapazoidal shape and roofline clock tower are particularly 
well designed for the building's corner location." 

(51) 98 Merchants Row. 1906-7. Mead Building. Neo-Classical Com- 
mercial style. ". . . it defines the most important intersection in the city's com- 
mercial district. . . ." 

(52) 104 Merchants Row. c. 1860. Morse Block. Commercial Vernacular 
style. ". . . most notable feature is the rounded corner bay . . . providing a focal 
point for this intersection . . . its original Mansard roof has been removed. . . ." 

(53) In Shopping Plaza, c. 1860. Old Railroad Car Shop. Vernacular style. 
". . . the only major structure surviving from the railroad complex, demolished 
for the Rutland Plaza Shopping Center." This survivor is scheduled to be razed 
shortly for additional parking. 

(54) 9-13 Center. 1906. Tuttle Block, photo above. Classic Revival style. 
The shop front at number 9 Center is the first restoration completed under the 
Rutland Historic Preservation Project. 

(55) 30 Center, c. 1925. Paramount Theatre. Classic Revival style. 

(56) 128 Merchants Row. c. 1930. Service Building, above. Art Deco style. 
". . . designed with vertical buff-colored brick shafts between each bay and 
paneled red brick spandrels. The shafts are carried above the cornice line and 
decorated with terra cotta coping and chevron-patterned panels. . . ." 

(57) Northeast corner of Merchants Row and Washington. 1852. Bardwell 
House Hotel, photo on cover. Greek Revival style. "... the 1852 core ... is 
eight bays wide, five bays deep and three stories high . . . the original U-shaped 
core still exists, although the roof line has been altered . . . the gable roof in the 
main block was replaced by a Mansard with corner towers. This roof was sub- 
sequently bricked over to form the presently existing fourth story. . . ." To 
see the Greek Revival features of this building at the time it was first built 
refer to the photograph reproduced on page 19 of Davison's Historical Rutland. 

(58) 51 Washington. 1901. Masonic Lodge. ' 
traditional Classical motifs." 

37 



very freely adapted from 



Tour of Southeast Part of Town 




60 Howe Scale Company 



63 O'Conxell House 



(59) City Hall. 1901. Colonial Revival style. ". . . achieves the monu- 
mentally thought suitable for a turn-of-the-century municipal building through 
the use of carved marble trim, pedimented pavilions, and an over-scaled hip 
roof. . . ." 



For remainder of tour, refer to map on page 39. 

(60) Strongs Avenue opposite Hopkins Street, c. 1877-78. Howe Scale 
Company, photo above. "... a well preserved post-Civil War era industrial 
complex ... of eleven acres and sixteen buildings ... at the time it was built 
... it was considered a model of fireproof construction. . . ." J. J. R. Randall 
of Rutland was the architect. 

(61) Rutland Fairgrounds Entrance Gate. c. 1910. "This building has an 
arcaded central pavilion with an open cupola and lower flanking wings ... a 
major surviving example of early 20th century fairgrounds architecture. . . ." 
Tiled roof. 

(62) 25-39 Curtis, c. 1870 and c. 1925. Rutland Fire Clay Company. A 
fine example of vernacular industrial architecture, using poured concrete. The 
roughness of the surface, showing the marks of the wooden forms, is a fore- 
runner of the Brutalism style. To the rear are two brick boiler houses with 
flared chimneys, dating from the 1870's. 

(63) Cold River Road just north of Clarendon town line. c. 1810. O'Con- 
nell farm, photo above. Federal style with full entablature and three-quarter 
length sidelights at center entrance. 

(64) Route 7 south c. 1850. Hayward house. Late Federal style in brick. 
The high arches over the windows are accentuated by paint of contrasting color. 

(65) Cramton house, c. 1850. Federal style farmhouse of brick with a cross 
gable in center of facade. 




39 



A Tour of Dorr Drive and Vicinity 
Map on page 39 

— r +.. 




66 Brookside 



69 Kelley House 



Begin at traffic light on Route 4 in Center Rutland, turn south onto Ripley 
Road, then right on Clement Road. 

(66) Brookside. c. 1860. photo above. "... the facade of this Gothic Revival 
style house is composed of a front gable flanked by a three-level east entrance 
tower . . . remodeled during the Queen Anne period, when the rear was extended 
by several feet ... a corner turret with conical cap ... a late 19th century al- 
teration. . . ." 

(67) The Maples, home of Julia C. R. Dorr. c. 1855. photo p. 21,.. ". . . early 
Italianate style house . . . stained glass sidelights and transom. . . ." 

(68) 229 Dorr Drive, c. 1880. Baxter Cottage. Vernacular style. ". . . com- 
posed of two sections: a low dormered main block with a jerkin-headed roof, 
and a hexagonal end bay with a large finial. . . ." 

(69) 305 Dorr Drive, c. 1825-35. Kelley farmhouse, photo above. "... a 
well-preserved example of a brick Federal style farmstead. . . ." 

(70) Just north of Clarendon town line. Pratt house, c. 1790-1810. Late 
Georgian/Federal style. "... the roof slopes downward over a rear shed, forming 
a saltbox profile. At the eaves is a simple boxed cornice with flush, mitred ends. 
A wood frame ell dating from the Greek Revival period was added at the rear. . . ." 
Land once owned by Gershom Beach. 

(71) 85 Forest, c. 1855. Greek Revival style. "Because of its brick exterior, 
this small cottage is more elaborate than most early worker's houses, which are 
typically wood frame construction." 

(72) St. Peter complex, c. 1860-79. ". . . at its core is the church (1873) 
in Victorian Gothic style, and rectory in Italianate style, both surrounded by the 
large Mansard style convent, Loretto Home and academy. . . ." 



40 



Tour of Center Rutland, Proctor and West Rutland 
Map for first four stops on page 39 




74 Gookin House 



75 Ripley House 



(73) Evergreen Cemetery, c. 1865. "... a fine example of the garden ceme- 
teries developed in the mid 19th century. ..." A small cottage on the grounds 
has board and batten siding in the Gothic Revival style. Many large monu- 
ments of interest, particularly the Ripley plot in northwest corner. 

(74) Gookin house, c. 1800-20. -photo above. ". . . an exceptionally well- 
preserved Federal style house . . . the elliptical entrance arch is embellished with 
a keystone and alternating fluted and floral motifs. In the central bay of the 
second level is an unusual Palladian window which has a flattened center arch 
flush with the cornice line. ..." 

(75) William Y. Ripley house. 1825. photo above. Federal style. "... the 
windows have splayed lintels and under the cornice is a frieze decorated with 
urns and swags. ..." 

(76) Griggs house, c. 1810-35. ". . . this substantial Federal-style house 
. . . semicircular brick arches with louvered fans underneath. The gable ends 
have blind lunettes. . . ." 

Refer to map on page 42. 

(77) On old Route 3. Chatterton house, c. 1820-30. One of the few houses 
in the area built of rough local stone. 

(78) 35 Warner c. 1920. Colonial Revival style with florid Georgian motifs. 
Detailing is elaborate and unrestrained, especially the voluted center dormer. 

(79) Northeast corner of Ormsbee & Route 3. Davis house, c. 1890. photo 
p. 26. A Queen Anne style house considerably modified by removal of the tower. 

(80) Opposite is: Proctor Library, c. 1935. Classical Revival style. In its 
fine collection of Vermontiana are papers of the Proctor family and many albums 
of the marble and railroad industry. 



u 



PROCTOR 




J,2 




82 Proctor Town Offices 



(81) Church Street. Union Church, c. 1890. Romanesque style. Rock- 
faced grey marble with open, arched tower. Three Tiffany Studio stained glass 
windows are worth seeing. 

(82) Proctor Town offices, c. 1836. photo above. Based on Federal style 
forms with Greek Revival style influence in the pedimented end gable with a 
rounded, centered arch. Built of rough-cut native stone. The center entrance 
is surmounted with a fanlight. Oldest surviving schoolhouse in the area. 

(83) West Proctor Road. Humphrey house, c. 1826. A massive brick 
Federal style house with parapeted end gables and paired end chimneys. 

(84) Mead house. 1835. photo below. Brick Federal style farmstead with 
wood frame ell in rear. The latter has three pairs of windows and a recessed porch. 

(85) Wilson Castle, c. 1900. Designed by an English architect in a blend 
of Flemish, Dutch, Queen Anne and Tudor styles. Imported glazed brick is 
used. The surviving outbuildings are especially noteworthy. 




84 Mead Farmhouse 



48 




88 Catholic Rectory 



94 14 Clarendon 



Refer to map on opposite page? for West Rutland sites. 

(86) Corner Pleasant Street and Route 4. Gilmore house, c. 1820. photo 
p. 22. Greek Revival style with pedimented gable ends. 

(87) Opposite monument shop. Foundation of third Congregational Church, 
c. 1855. An opportunity to see a stone foundation laid in random courses, typical 
of work of the period and earlier. A photo of this church is featured on the 
cover of the Fall 1973 issue of the Quarterly. 

(88) Pleasant Street. Old Catholic Rectory, c. 1890. photo above. Italianate 
style with simple paired brackets, two-story porch and pilastered entrance. 
An unusual and modest building in this style. 

(89) St. Bridget Church, c. 1870. Gothic Revival style. Built by parishioners, 
many immigrant marble workers, of native marble. A well-preserved example 
of this style. 

(90) Marble Street from depot south to Main Street, c. 1880. This long 
stretch of commercial and residential buildings, mostly in the Italianate style, 
is a survivor of the boom days in the marble industry in the decades before and 
after the turn of the century. The Walsh Block, opposite Smith Street, is typical, 
being made of rock-faced grey marble. Smooth marble pilasters flank the en- 
trance. 

(91) 257 Main. c. 1800-10. Early vernacular style with sloping roof at 
front and back, creating salt box effect. Central chimney. 

(92) 322 Main. c. 1860. One of several Greek Revival style worker's houses 
on Main Street. 

(93) 341 Main. c. 1870. Gothic Revival style. Former Episcopal Church, 
retaining some of the original features, such as steeply pitched roof. 

(94) 14 Clarendon, c. 1860. photo above. Despite its air of neglect, this fine 
Italianate style house displays a grace and lightness unusual in such a large 
structure. The paired bracketed columns of the porch are in balance with the 
railing, and the porch rafter ends which give the effect of modillion detailing. 
The tall arcaded, paired windows on the second level break up the large facade. 
The relieved brick chimneys flanking the heavily bracketed cupola are in har- 
mony with the pedimented center gable. 

(95) 102 Clarendon, c. 1890. Italianate style wood frame house with cupola. 

(96) 114 Clarendon, c. 1850. Late Federal style brick farmhouse, the last 
of the Mead family houses on the street. 



44 




WJTLANP ko. 



WEST 

RUTLAND 



45 



Tour of North Part of Rutland Citv 





98 Gas Works 



109 191 Grove 



(97) Southeast corner Cleveland and State. Old dress factory, c. 1950. 
An International style commercial building of glazed tile. This style is charac- 
terized by simple, unadorned lines, and continuous bands of windows devoid 
of lintels or detailing. 

(98) To reach this site, go just beyond bridge over East Creek to Lalor 
Avenue, turn left. Gas Works Coke House, c. 1890. photo above. A finely de- 
tailed Vernacular commercial brick building to be demolished this winter. 
Despite its intended rough use it was embellished with the corbeled brick band 
under the eaves. Note the brick pilasters and the oval window with four voussoirs 
a design element found in many pretentious Queen Anne and Shingle style 
houses, such as (109) 

(99) 111 Library, c. 1890. Old Baxter Estate fire house. Mansard style, 
moved to present site and converted into apartments. 

(100) 52 Pine. c. 1870. Gothic Revival style cottage with vertical board and 
batten siding, steep roof and scrolled barge boards at the eaves. 

(101) 73 Pine. c. 1870. Levi Kingsley house. A massive Mansard style 
mansion. Large tower and cupola over front entrance have been removed. 

(102) 125 Grove, c. 1870. Curtis house. Mansard style wood frame house 
moved in sections from opposite (45). 

(103) Opposite (102). Baxter Estate and Crestwood Apartments. The only 
surviving elements of the H. H. Baxter Estate on the site are the unpolished 
marble walls and entrance gate posts. The main house on the estate was op- 
erated for many years as the Crestwood Hotel. The name survives in the Inter- 
national style apartment house on stilts which dates from the mid 1940's. 

(104) 8 Seabury. c. 1870. A Gothic Revival cottage, once part of the Baxter 
Estate. 

(105) 9 Seabury. c. 1870. A Mansard style cottage also once part of the 
Baxter Estate. [Continue east, then north one block to Crescent.] 

(106) 48 Crescent, c. 1910. Late Queen Anne style house with red shingle 
siding. 

(107) 42, 44, 46 Crescent, c. 1920. Shingle style houses of moderate propor- 
tions. 

(108) 31 Crescent, c. 1920. Late Queen Anne style house with unusual 
Richardsonian Romanesque arches of wood. 

(109) 191 Grove, (photo above) and 201 Grove, photo p. 28. c. 1920. Two 
massive Shingle style mansions with well-integrated outbuildings in same style. 

46 




116 Pennock Farmhouse 




38 Nichols 



(110) Shady Lane. c. 1930. Chateauesque style mansion derived from the 
mode of the French chateaux. See map p. 39. 

(111) 234 Grove. 1928. Swift house. Colonial Revival style with Georgian 
details. 

(112) 240 Grove. 1929. Webber house. A wood frame Colonial Revival 
style house designed by the owner. Absent from this house are the florid neo- 
Georgian motifs, such as have been added to authentic Federal style buildings; 
see 7, 16. 

(113) Route 7 north. Baird house, c. 1836. Federal style house "... a 

deep cornice with returns. . . ." 

(114) Lester farmhouse and outbuildings, c. 1850-80. Main house ". . . with 
Greek Revival detailing at entrance . . . attached one-story gable-roofed barn 
has a rear section of brick said to date from the early 1800's. . . ." 

(115) Dunklee house, c. 1850. "A typical example of the few small Greek 
Revival style buildings remaining in Rutland Town . . . detailing includes corner 
pilasters, full entablature at the eaves and gable, sidelights at the entrance. . . ." 

(116) East Pittsford Road. Pennock house, c. 1840's. photo above. Another 
small Greek Revival style house. 

(117) Route 7 north. Dyer house, c. 1815-1830. "Despite several recent 
alterations, the original form of this handsomely proportioned Federal style 
house is intact ... on both elevations are narrow, centered entrances with 
pilasters, entablature, and a four-light transom. . . ." 

(118) Opposite (117) Smith house, c. 1830. A small, modest Federal style 
building with five bays. See map p. 33 for remaining sites. 

(119) 68 Ives. Ives house, c. 1920. photo p. 28. Cottage in Bungalow style 
built by Frederick C. Ives. Typical of the style are shingle siding, uncovered 
rafters. Not typical is the second story. 

(120) 38 Nichols, c. 1890. photo above. A fine, unaltered example of a man- 
sion in the Stick style, with elaborate wood tracery. 

(121) 41 Burnham. c. 1890. A better than average example, despite need 
of maintenance, of the Queen Anne style. "... most distinctive feature is a 
two-level, gabled front porch richly decorated with incised, scrolled, turned 
and cut woodwork in Queen Anne and Eastlake motifs. ..." 



47 



Bibliography 

Davison, F. E. Historical Rutland. Rutland 1911. The one best source for 
history and pictures of Rutland City. 

Smith & Rann. History of Rutland County. Syracuse. 1886. 

Whiffen, M. American Architecture Since 1780 . . . Cambridge. (1969) An il- 
lustrated guide to styles. 



Illustration credits: references are to building numbers. 

Lloyd G. Marsh. 17, 19, 20, 23, 31, 37, 42, 43, 54, 75, 79, 82, 84, 88, 94, 119, 120. 

Saxtons River Historical Society. Lena Osgood photo. 116 

Payson R. Webber. Photo page 19. 

All illustrations not otherwise credited are from the collection of the Rutland 
Historical Society. 



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